Egypt's six presidents: all but one military men
With the re-election of Abdel Fattah al-Sisi on Thursday, all of Egypt's six presidents bar one have been from the ranks of the military, which overthrew the monarchy in 1952.
Here are snap profiles:
- Mohamed Naguib, 1953 -
The general led the "Free Officers" who overthrew King Farouk and pushed through a radical restructuring of the government and economy.
He was named president in 1953 but sidelined the following year by his fellow officers who installed Gamal Abdel Nasser.
- Gamal Abdel Nasser, 1954 -
One of the most influential leaders in modern Middle East history, the charismatic colonel ruled Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.
He led the country in three wars with Britain, France and Israel. He offered his resignation after Egypt lost the Sinai Peninsula to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War but stayed in office after mass protests in his support.
He was a leading proponent of pan-Arab socialism and oversaw a brief union with Syria. Masses turned out for his funeral in September 1970.
- Anwar Sadat, 1970 -
Nasser's vice president, Sadat became the first Arab leader to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1979, but only after launching a war in 1973 to regain the Sinai Peninsula.
Four years later he paid an unprecedented visit by an Arab leader to Jerusalem. He also released Islamists jailed by Nasser and is fondly remembered in Egypt for improving the economy.
An Islamist militant group assassinated Sadat at a military parade in 1981 in protest at the treaty with Israel.
- Hosni Mubarak, 1981 -
Sadat's vice president and a former air force chief, Mubarak led Egypt for 30 years, facing down an Islamist insurgency and surviving repeated assassination attempts.
He strengthened the role of the secret police but in his last decade in power began allowing opposition and independent media more freedoms while a protest movement began to gather pace.
He was forced to resign on February 11, 2011 in an 18-day uprising amid the Arab Spring rocking the region.
Mubarak was acquitted and freed in 2017 at his trial for the killing of demonstrators during the revolution.
- Mohamed Morsi, 2012 -
Mohamed Morsi of the powerful Muslim Brotherhood was elected in June 2012, becoming Egypt's first democratically elected, first civilian and first Islamist leader.
He was overthrown by army chief Sisi a year later after massive popular protests against his reign.
His ouster marked the beginning of a bloody repression which left hundreds of Morsi supporters dead and thousands arrested.
Morsi now languishes in jail, convicted on various counts and sentenced to multiple terms including the death penalty.
- Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, 2014 -
In May 2014 Sisi, who had been de facto ruler of the country since ousting Morsi, was comfortably elected after stamping out opposition from Islamist, liberal and secular ranks.
He was reelected for a second term with more than 90 percent of the vote, state media reported on Thursday, citing preliminary results.