Sunday 28 May 2017

CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE 2013

Fri, 03/22/2013 - 17:11 -- armel
English

CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE

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ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

CHAPTER 1

FOUNDING PROVISIONS

2. Supremacy of Constitution.

3. Founding values and principles.

4. National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and Coat of Arms.

5. Tiers of government.

7. Promotion of public awareness of Constitution.

CHAPTER 2

NATIONAL OBJECTIVES

8. Objectives to guide State and all institutions and agencies of Government.

9. Good governance.

10. National unity, peace and stability.

11. Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms.

13. National development.

14. Empowerment and employment creation.

18. Fair regional representation.

22. Persons with disabilities.

23. Veterans of the liberation struggle.

24. Work and labour relations.

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25. Protection of the family.

32. Sporting and recreational facilities.

33. Preservation of traditional knowledge.

34. Domestication of international instruments.

CHAPTER 3

CITIZENSHIP

35. Zimbabwean citizenship.

36. Citizenship by birth.

37. Citizenship by descent.

38. Citizenship by registration.

39. Revocation of citizenship.

40. Retention of citizenship despite marriage or dissolution of marriage.

41. Citizenship and Immigration Board.

42. Powers of Parliament in regard to citizenship.

43. Continuation and restoration of previous citizenship.

CHAPTER 4

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

PART 1

APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF CHAPTER 4

44. Duty to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms.

45. Application of Chapter 4.

46. Interpretation of Chapter 4.

47. Chapter 4 does not preclude existence of other rights.

PART 2

FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

49. Right to personal liberty.

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50. Rights of arrested and detained persons.

51. Right to human dignity.

52. Right to personal security.

53. Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

54. Freedom from slavery or servitude

55. Freedom from forced or compulsory labour.

56. Equality and non-discrimination.

58. Freedom of assembly and association.

59. Freedom to demonstrate and petition.

60. Freedom of conscience.

61. Freedom of expression and freedom of the media.

62. Access to information.

63. Language and culture.

64. Freedom of profession, trade or occupation.

66. Freedom of movement and residence.

68. Right to administrative justice.

69. Right to a fair hearing.

70. Rights of accused persons.

72. Rights to agricultural land.

73. Environmental rights.

74. Freedom from arbitrary eviction.

75. Right to education.

76. Right to health care.

77. Right to food and water.

PART 3

ELABORATION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS

79. Application of Part 3.

81. Rights of children.

82. Rights of the elderly.

83. Rights of persons with disabilities.

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84. Rights of veterans of the liberation struggle.

PART 4

ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

85. Enforcement of fundamental human rights and freedoms.

PART 5

LIMITATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

86. Limitation of rights and freedoms.

87. Limitations during public emergency.

CHAPTER 5

THE EXECUTIVE

PART 1

EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY

88. Executive authority.

PART 2

THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS

90. Duties of President.

91. Qualifications for election as President and Vice-President.

92. Election of President and Vice-Presidents.

93. Challenge to presidential election.

94. Assumption of office by President and Vice-Presidents.

95. Term of office of President and Vice-Presidents.

96. Resignation of President or Vice-President.

97. Removal of President or Vice-President from office.

98. Presidential immunity.

99. Functions of Vice-Presidents

101. Succession in event of death, resignation or incapacity of President or Vice-President.

102. Remuneration of President and Vice-Presidents.

103. President and Vice-Presidents and former office-holders not to hold other office or
employment.

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PART 3

MINISTERS, DEPUTY MINISTERS AND CABINET

104. Appointment of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

106. Conduct of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

107. Accountability of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

108. Tenure of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

109. Vote of no confidence in Government.

PART 4

EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

110. Executive functions of President and Cabinet.

113. States of public emergency.

PART 5

ATTORNEY-GENERAL

114. Attorney-General.

115. Removal from office of Attorney-General.

CHAPTER 6

THE LEGISLATURE

PART 1

LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY

117. Nature and extent of legislative authority.

PART 2

NATURE AND ROLE OF PARLIAMENT

119. Role of Parliament.

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PART 3

THE SENATE

120. Composition of Senate.

121. Qualifications and disqualifications for election as Senator.

122. President of Senate.

123. Deputy President of Senate.

PART 4

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

124. Composition of National Assembly.

125. Qualifications and disqualifications for election to National Assembly.

126. Speaker of National Assembly.

127. Deputy Speaker of National Assembly.

PART 5

TENURE OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT

128. Oath of Member of Parliament.

129. Tenure of seat of Member of Parliament.

PART 6

LEGISLATIVE AND OTHER POWERS

130. Powers and functions of Senate and National Assembly.

131. Acts of Parliament and procedure for their enactment.

132. Commencement of Acts of Parliament.

133. Enrolment of Acts of Parliament.

134. Subsidiary legislation.

PART 7

PROCEDURE IN PARLIAMENT

135. Head of Parliament.

136. Persons presiding in Parliament.

137. Quorum in Parliament.

138. Voting and right of audience in Parliament.

140. Presidential addresses and messages to Parliament.

141. Public access to and involvement in Parliament.

142. Validity of proceedings in Parliament.

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PART 8

DURATION, DISSOLUTION AND SITTINGS OF PARLIAMENT

143. Duration and dissolution of Parliament.

144. General election resulting from dissolution of Parliament.

145. First sitting of Parliament following general election.

146. Sittings and recess periods.

147. Lapsing of Bills, motions, petitions and other business on dissolution of Parliament.

PART 9

GENERAL MATTERS RELATING TO PARLIAMENT

148. Privileges and immunities of Parliament.

149. Right to petition Parliament.

150. Venue of Parliament.

151. Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.

152. Parliamentary Legal Committee.

153. Remuneration of President of Senate, Speaker and Members of Parliament.

154. Clerk of Parliament and other staff.

CHAPTER 7

ELECTIONS

PART 1

ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES

155. Principles of electoral system.

156. Conduct of elections and referendums.

PART 2

TIMING OF ELECTIONS

158. Timing of elections.

159. Filling of electoral vacancies.

PART 3

DELIMITATION OF ELECTORAL BOUNDARIES

160. Number of constituencies and wards.

161. Delimitation of electoral boundaries.

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CHAPTER 8

THE JUDICIARY AND THE COURTS

PART 1

THE COURT SYSTEM

164. Independence of judiciary.

165. Principles guiding judiciary.

166. Constitutional Court.

167. Jurisdiction of Constitutional Court.

169. Jurisdiction of Supreme Court.

171. Jurisdiction of High Court.

173. Administrative Court.

174. Other courts and tribunals.

175. Powers of courts in constitutional matters.

176. Inherent powers of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and High Court.

PART 2

APPOINTMENT AND TENURE OF MEMBERS OF JUDICIARY

177. Qualifications of judges of Constitutional Court.

178. Qualifications of judges of Supreme Court.

179. Qualifications of judges of High Court, Labour Court and Administrative Court.

180. Appointment of judges.

181. Acting judicial appointments.

182. Appointment of magistrates and other members of judiciary.

183. Judicial officers not to be appointed to more than one court.

184. Judicial appointments to reflect society.

186. Tenure of office of judges.

187. Removal of judges from office.

188. Conditions of service and tenure of members of judiciary.

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PART 3

JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION

189. Establishment and composition of Judicial Service Commission.

190. Functions of Judicial Service Commission.

191. Fairness and transparency of proceedings of Judicial Service Commission.

PART 4

GENERAL

192. Law to be administered.

193. Criminal jurisdiction of courts.

CHAPTER 9

PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP

194. Basic values and principles governing public administration.

195. State-controlled commercial entities.

196. Responsibilities of public officers and principles of leadership.

197. Terms of office of heads of government-controlled entities.

198. Legislation to enforce Chapter 9.

CHAPTER 10

CIVIL SERVICE

200. Conduct of members of Civil Service.

201. Minister responsible for Civil Service.

202. Establishment and composition of Civil Service Commission.

203. Functions of Civil Service Commission.

204. Ambassadors and other principal representatives of Zimbabwe.

205. Permanent Secretaries.

CHAPTER 11

SECURITY SERVICES

PART 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS

208. Conduct of members of security services.

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209. National Security Council.

210. Independent complaints mechanism.

PART 2

DEFENCE FORCES

212. Function of Defence Forces.

213. Deployment of Defence Forces.

214. Political accountability for deployment of Defence Forces.

215. Minister responsible for Defence Forces.

216. Command of Defence Forces.

217. Establishment and composition of Defence Forces Service Commission.

218. Functions of Defence Forces Service Commission.

PART 3

POLICE SERVICE

219. Police Service and its functions.

220. Minister responsible for Police Service.

221. Commissioner-General of Police.

222. Establishment and composition of Police Service Commission.

223. Functions of Police Service Commission.

PART 4

INTELLIGENCE SERVICES

224. Establishment of intelligence services.

225. Minister responsible for national intelligence service.

226. Command or control of national intelligence service.

PART 5

PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICE

227. Prisons and Correctional Service and its functions.

228. Minister responsible for Prisons and Correctional Service.

229. Commissioner-General of Prisons and Correctional Service.

230. Establishment and composition of Prisons and Correctional Service Commission.

231. Functions of Prisons and Correctional Service Commission.

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CHAPTER 12

INDEPENDENT COMMISSIONS SUPPORTING DEMOCRACY

PART 1

GENERAL

232. Independent Commissions.

233. Objectives of independent Commissions.

234. Staff of independent Commissions.

235. Independence of Commissions.

236. Members of independent Commissions to be non-political.

237. Removal from office of members of independent Commissions.

PART 2

ZIMBABWE ELECTORAL COMMISSION

238. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

239. Functions of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

240. Disqualifications for appointment to Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

241. Zimbabwe Electoral Commission to report on elections and referendums.

PART 3

ZIMBABWE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION

242. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

243. Functions of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

244. Reports to and by Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

PART 4

ZIMBABWE GENDER COMMISSION

245. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

246. Functions of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

247. Reports by Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

PART 5

ZIMBABWE MEDIA COMMISSION

248. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

249. Functions of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

250. Reports of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

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PART 6

NATIONAL PEACE AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION

251. Establishment and composition of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

252. Functions of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

253. Reports of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

CHAPTER 13

INSTITUTIONS TO COMBAT CORRUPTION AND CRIME

PART 1

ZIMBABWE ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION

254. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

255. Functions of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

256. Application of certain provisions of Chapter 12 to Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption
Commission.

257. Reports by Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

PART 2

NATIONAL PROSECUTING AUTHORITY

258. Establishment and functions of National Prosecuting Authority.

259. Prosecutor-General and other officers.

260. Independence of Prosecutor-General.

261. Conduct of officers of National Prosecuting Authority.

262. Prosecutor-General to report annually to Parliament.

263. Other powers of prosecution.

CHAPTER 14

PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

PART 1

PRELIMINARY

264. Devolution of governmental powers and responsibilities.

265. General principles of provincial and local government.

266. Conduct of employees of provincial and local governments.

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PART 2

PROVINCES AND PROVINCIAL AND METROPOLITAN COUNCILS

267. Provinces and districts of Zimbabwe.

268. Provincial councils.

269. Metropolitan councils.

270. Functions of provincial and metropolitan councils.

271. Committees of provincial and metropolitan councils.

272. Chairpersons of provincial and metropolitan councils.

273. General provisions relating to provincial and metropolitan councils.

PART 3

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

274. Urban local authorities

275. Local authorities for rural areas.

276. Functions of local authorities.

277. Elections to local authorities.

278. Tenure of seats of members of local authorities.

279. Procedure of local authorities.

CHAPTER 15

TRADITIONAL LEADERS

280. Traditional leadership.

281. Principles to be observed by traditional leaders.

282. Functions of traditional leaders.

283. Appointment and removal of traditional leaders.

284. Remuneration and benefits of traditional leaders.

285. National Council and provincial assemblies of Chiefs.

286. Functions of National Council and provincial assemblies of Chiefs.

287. Integrity and Ethics Committee.

CHAPTER 16

AGRICULTURAL LAND

288. Interpretation in Chapter 16.

289. Principles guiding policy on agricultural land.

290. Continuation of rights of State in agricultural land.

291. Continuation of rights of occupiers of agricultural land.

292. Security of tenure for occupiers of agricultural land.

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293. Alienation of agricultural land by State.

294. Alienation of agricultural land by owners or occupiers.

295. Compensation for acquisition of previously-acquired agricultural land.

296. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Land Commission.

297. Functions of Zimbabwe Land Commission.

CHAPTER 17

FINANCE

PART 1

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

298. Principles of public financial management.

299. Parliamentary oversight of State revenues and expenditure.

300. Limits of State borrowings, public debt and State guarantees.

301. Allocation of revenues between provincial and local tiers of government.

PART 2

CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND

302. Consolidated Revenue Fund.

303. Withdrawals from Consolidated Revenue Fund.

304. Charges upon Consolidated Revenue Fund.

PART 3

AUTHORISATION OF EXPENDITURE FROM CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND

305. Appropriations from Consolidated Revenue Fund.

306. Authorisation of expenditure in advance of appropriation.

307. Unauthorised expenditure.

PART 4

SAFEGUARDING OF PUBLIC FUNDS AND PROPERTY

308. Duties of custodians of public funds and property.

PART 5

AUDITOR-GENERAL

309. Auditor-General and his or her functions.

310. Appointment of Auditor-General.

311. Independence of Auditor-General.

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312. Remuneration of Auditor-General.

313. Removal of Auditor-General from office.

314. Staff of Auditor-General.

PART 6

GENERAL

315. Procurement and other governmental contracts.

316. Management of statutory bodies.

317. Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.

CHAPTER 18

GENERAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

PART 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO COMMISSIONS

318. Application of Part 1.

319. Commissions to be bodies corporate.

320. Membership of Commissions and conditions of service of members.

321. Functions and procedure of Commissions.

322. Funding of Commissions.

323. Commissions to report annually to Parliament.

PART 2

GENERAL

324. Diligent performance of constitutional obligations.

325. Funding of constitutional bodies and other institutions.

326. Customary international law.

327. International conventions, treaties and agreements.

328. Amendment of Constitution.

329. Commencement of Constitution, transitional provisions and savings.

PART 3

INTERPRETATION

330. Application of Part 3.

331. General principles of interpretation of the Constitution.

333. References to Chapters, sections, etc.

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334. Words in singular to include plural, and vice versa.

335. Tables and headings.

336. References to time.

337. References to holders of office.

338. References to Parliament.

339. Advice and consultation.

342. Exercise of functions, etc.

343. When person not regarded as holding public office.

344. Quorum and effect of vacancies in constitutional bodies.

345. Inconsistencies between different texts of Constitution.

FIRST SCHEDULE: National Flag, National Anthem, National Coat of Arms and Public
Seal.

SECOND SCHEDULE: Limitations on Rights During Public Emergencies.

THIRD SCHEDULE: Oaths and Affirmations.

FOURTH SCHEDULE: Qualifications for Voters.

FIFTH SCHEDULE: Procedure as to Bills and Other Matters in Parliament.

SIXTH SCHEDULE: Commencement of this Constitution, Transitional Provisions and
Savings.

PREAMBLE

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We the people of Zimbabwe,

United in our diversity by our common desire for freedom, justice and equality, and our
heroic resistance to colonialism, racism and all forms of domination and oppression,

Exalting and extolling the brave men and women who sacrificed their lives during the
Chimurenga / Umvukela and national liberation struggles,

Honouring our forebears and compatriots who toiled for the progress of our country,

Recognising the need to entrench democracy, good, transparent and accountable
governance and the rule of law,

Reaffirming our commitment to upholding and defending fundamental human rights and
freedoms,

Acknowledging the richness of our natural resources,

Celebrating the vibrancy of our traditions and cultures,

Determined to overcome all challenges and obstacles that impede our progress,

Cherishing freedom, equality, peace, justice, tolerance, prosperity and patriotism in search
of new frontiers under a common destiny,

Acknowledging the supremacy of Almighty God, in whose hands our future lies,

Resolve by the tenets of this Constitution to commit ourselves to build a united, just
and prosperous nation, founded on values of transparency, equality, freedom, fairness,
honesty and the dignity of hard work,

And, imploring the guidance and support of Almighty God, hereby make this
Constitution and commit ourselves to it as the fundamental law of our beloved land.

CHAPTER 1

FOUNDING PROVISIONS

Zimbabwe is a unitary, democratic and sovereign republic.

Supremacy of Constitution

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of Zimbabwe and any law, practice, custom or
conduct inconsistent with it is invalid to the extent of the inconsistency.

(2) The obligations imposed by this Constitution are binding on every person, natural or
juristic, including the State and all executive, legislative and judicial institutions and agencies of
government at every level, and must be fulfilled by them.

Founding values and principles

(1) Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles—

(a) supremacy of the Constitution;

(c) fundamental human rights and freedoms;

(d) the nation’s diverse cultural, religious and traditional values;

(e) recognition of the inherent dignity and worth of each human being;

(f) recognition of the equality of all human beings;

(g) gender equality;

(h) good governance; and

(i) recognition of and respect for the liberation struggle.

(2) The principles of good governance, which bind the State and all institutions and
agencies of government at every level, include—

(a) a multi-party democratic political system;

(b) an electoral system based on—

(i) universal adult suffrage;

(ii) free, fair and regular elections; and

(iii) adequate representation of the electorate;

(c) the orderly transfer of power following elections;

(d) respect for the rights of all political parties;

(e) observance of the principle of separation of powers;

(f) respect for the people of Zimbabwe, from whom the authority to govern is derived;

(g) transparency, justice, accountability and responsiveness;

(h) the fostering of national unity, peace and stability, with due regard to diversity of
languages, customary practices and traditions;

(i) recognition of the rights of—

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(i) ethnic, racial, cultural, linguistic and religious groups;

(ii) persons with disabilities;

(iii) women, the elderly, youths and children;

(iv) veterans of the liberation struggle;

(j) the equitable sharing of national resources, including land;

(k) due respect for vested rights; and

(l) the devolution and decentralisation of governmental power and functions.

National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and Coat of arms

Zimbabwe has a National Flag, a National Anthem, a Coat of Arms and a Public Seal,
which are set out in the First Schedule.

Tiers of government

The tiers of government in Zimbabwe are—

(a) the national Government;

(b) provincial and metropolitan councils; and

(c) local authorities, that is to say—

(i) urban councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of
people in urban areas; and

(ii) rural councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of
people in rural areas within the districts into which the provinces are divided.

(1) The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan,
Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda and
Xhosa, are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe.

(2) An Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised languages
and may prescribe languages of record.

(3) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must—

(a) ensure that all officially recognised languages are treated equitably; and

(b) take into account the language preferences of people affected by governmental
measures or communications.

(4) The State must promote and advance the use of all languages used in Zimbabwe,
including sign language, and must create conditions for the development of those languages.

Promotion of public awareness of Constitution

The State must promote public awareness of this Constitution, in particular by—

(a) translating it into all officially recognised languages and disseminating it as widely as
possible;

(b) requiring this Constitution to be taught in schools and as part of the curricula for the
training of members of the security services, the Civil Service and members and
employees of public institutions; and

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(c) encouraging all persons and organisations, including civic organisations, to
disseminate awareness and knowledge of this Constitution throughout society.

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CHAPTER 2

NATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Objectives to guide State and all institutions and agencies of Government

(1) The objectives set out in this Chapter guide the State and all institutions and agencies of
government at every level in formulating and implementing laws and policy decisions that will
lead to the establishment, enhancement and promotion of a sustainable, just, free and democratic
society in which people enjoy prosperous, happy and fulfilling lives.

(2) Regard must be had to the objectives set out in this Chapter when interpreting the
State’s obligations under this Constitution and any other law.

Good governance

(1) The State must adopt and implement policies and legislation to develop efficiency,
competence, accountability, transparency, personal integrity and financial probity in all
institutions and agencies of government at every level and in every public institution, and in
particular—

(a) appointments to public offices must be made primarily on the basis of merit;

(b) measures must be taken to expose, combat and eradicate all forms of corruption and
abuse of power by those holding political and public offices.

(2) The State must ensure that all institutions and agencies of government at every level, in
particular Commissions and other bodies established by or under this Constitution, are provided
with adequate resources and facilities to enable them to carry out their functions
conscientiously, fairly, honestly and efficiently.

10 National unity, peace and stability

The State and every person, including juristic persons, and every institution and agency of
government at every level, must promote national unity, peace and stability.

11 Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms

The State must take all practical measures to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms
enshrined in Chapter 4 and to promote their full realisation and fulfilment.

(1) The foreign policy of Zimbabwe must be based on the following principles—

(a) the promotion and protection of the national interests of Zimbabwe;

(b) respect for international law;

(c) peaceful co-existence with other nations; and

(d) the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.

(2) The State must promote regional and pan-African cultural, economic and political co-
operation and integration and must participate in international and regional organisations that
stand for peace and the well-being and progress of the region, the continent and humanity.

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13 National development

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour
to facilitate rapid and equitable development, and in particular must take measures to—

(a) promote private initiative and self-reliance;

(b) foster agricultural, commercial, industrial, technological and scientific development;

(c) foster the development of industrial and commercial enterprises in order to empower
Zimbabwean citizens; and

(d) bring about balanced development of the different areas of Zimbabwe, in particular a
proper balance in the development of rural and urban areas.

(2) Measures referred to in this section must involve the people in the formulation and
implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them.

(3) Measures referred to in this section must protect and enhance the right of the people,
particularly women, to equal opportunities in development.

(4) The State must ensure that local communities benefit from the resources in their areas.

14 Empowerment and employment creation

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour
to facilitate and take measures to empower, through appropriate, transparent, fair and just
affirmative action, all marginalised persons, groups and communities in Zimbabwe.

(2) At all times the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must
ensure that appropriate and adequate measures are undertaken to create employment for all
Zimbabweans, especially women and youths.

(a) encourage people to grow and store adequate food;

(b) secure the establishment of adequate food reserves; and

(c) encourage and promote adequate and proper nutrition through mass education and
other appropriate means.

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must promote
and preserve cultural values and practices which enhance the dignity, well-being and equality of
Zimbabweans.

(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, and all
Zimbabwean citizens, must endeavour to preserve and protect Zimbabwe’s heritage.

(3) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
measures to ensure due respect for the dignity of traditional institutions.

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—

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(a) the State must promote the full participation of women in all spheres of Zimbabwean
society on the basis of equality with men;

(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure
that—

(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of
government at every level; and

(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other
elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this
Constitution or any Act of Parliament;

(c) the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
practical measures to ensure that women have access to resources, including land, on
the basis of equality with men.

(2) The State must take positive measures to rectify gender discrimination and imbalances
resulting from past practices and policies.

18 Fair regional representation

(1) The State must promote the fair representation of all Zimbabwe’s regions in all
institutions and agencies of government at every level.

(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
practical measures to ensure that all local communities have equitable access to resources to
promote their development.

(1) The State must adopt policies and measures to ensure that in matters relating to
children, the best interests of the children concerned are paramount.

(2) The State must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to ensure that children—

(a) enjoy family or parental care, or appropriate care when removed from the family
environment;

(b) have shelter and basic nutrition, health care and social services;

(c) are protected from maltreatment, neglect or any form of abuse; and

(d) have access to appropriate education and training.

(3) The State must take appropriate legislative and other measures—

(a) to protect children from exploitative labour practices; and

(b) to ensure that children are not required or permitted to perform work or provide
services that

(i) are inappropriate for the children’s age; or

(ii) place at risk the children’s well-being, education, physical or mental health or
spiritual, moral or social development.

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(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
reasonable measures, including affirmative action programmes, to ensure that youths, that is to
say people between the ages of fifteen and thirty-five years—

(a) have access to appropriate education and training;

(b) have opportunities to associate and to be represented and participate in political, social,
economic and other spheres of life;

(c) are afforded opportunities for employment and other avenues to economic
empowerment;

(d) have opportunities for recreational activities and access to recreational facilities; and

(e) are protected from harmful cultural practices, exploitation and all forms of abuse.

(2) An Act of Parliament may provide for one or more national youth programmes.

(3) Measures and programmes referred to in subsections (1) and (2) must be inclusive, non-
partisan and national in character.

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
reasonable measures, including legislative measures, to secure respect, support and protection
for elderly persons and to enable them to participate in the life of their communities.

(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour,
within the limits of the resources available to them—

(a) to encourage elderly persons to participate fully in the affairs of society;

(b) to provide facilities, food and social care for elderly persons who are in need;

(c) to develop programmes to give elderly persons the opportunity to engage in productive
activity suited to their abilities and consistent with their vocations and desires; and

(d) to foster social organisations aimed at improving the quality of life of elderly persons.

22 Persons with disabilities

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must recognise
the rights of persons with physical or mental disabilities, in particular their right to be treated
with respect and dignity.

(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must, within the
limits of the resources available to them, assist persons with physical or mental disabilities to
achieve their full potential and to minimise the disadvantages suffered by them.

(3) In particular, the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level
must—

(a) develop programmes for the welfare of persons with physical or mental disabilities,
especially work programmes consistent with their capabilities and acceptable to them
or their legal representatives;

(b) consider the specific requirements of persons with all forms of disability as one of the
priorities in development plans;

28

(c) encourage the use and development of forms of communication suitable for persons
with physical or mental disabilities; and

(d) foster social organisations aimed at improving the quality of life of persons with all
forms of disability.

(4) The State must take appropriate measures to ensure that buildings and amenities to
which the public has access are accessible to persons with disabilities.

23 Veterans of the liberation struggle

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must accord due
respect, honour and recognition to veterans of the liberation struggle, that is to say—

(a) those who fought in the War of Liberation;

(b) those who assisted the fighters in the War of Liberation; and

(c) those who were imprisoned, detained or restricted for political reasons during the
liberation struggle.

(2) The State must take reasonable measures, including legislative measures, for the welfare
and economic empowerment of veterans of the liberation struggle.

24 Work and labour relations

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must adopt
reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the resources available to them, to provide
everyone with an opportunity to work in a freely chosen activity, in order to secure a decent
living for themselves and their families.

(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour
to secure—

(a) full employment;

(b) the removal of restrictions that unnecessarily inhibit or prevent people from working
and otherwise engaging in gainful economic activities;

(c) vocational guidance and the development of vocational and training programmes,
including those for persons with disabilities; and

(d) the implementation of measures such as family care that enable women to enjoy a real
opportunity to work.

25 Protection of the family

The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must protect and
foster the institution of the family and in particular must endeavour, within the limits of the
resources available to them, to adopt measures for—

(a) the provision of care and assistance to mothers, fathers and other family members who
have charge of children; and

(b) the prevention of domestic violence.

The State must take appropriate measures to ensure that—

(a) no marriage is entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses;

29

(b) children are not pledged in marriage;

(c) there is equality of rights and obligations of spouses during marriage and at its
dissolution; and

(d) in the event of dissolution of a marriage, whether through death or divorce, provision
is made for the necessary protection of any children and spouses.

(1) The State must take all practical measures to promote—

(a) free and compulsory basic education for children; and

(b) higher and tertiary education.

(2) The State must take measures to ensure that girls are afforded the same opportunities as
boys to obtain education at all levels.

The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take
reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to them, to
enable every person to have access to adequate shelter.

(1) The State must take all practical measures to ensure the provision of basic, accessible
and adequate health services throughout Zimbabwe.

(2) The State must take appropriate, fair and reasonable measures to ensure that no person
is refused emergency medical treatment at any health institution.

(3) The State must take all preventive measures within the limits of the resources available
to it, including education and public awareness programmes, against the spread of disease.

The State must take all practical measures, within the limits of the resources available to it,
to provide social security and social care to those who are in need.

The State must take all practical measures, within the limits of the resources available to it,
to provide legal representation in civil and criminal cases for people who need it and are unable
to afford legal practitioners of their choice.

32 Sporting and recreational facilities

The State must take all practical measures to encourage sporting and recreational activities,
including the provision of sporting and recreational facilities for all people.

33 Preservation of traditional knowledge

The State must take measures to preserve, protect and promote indigenous knowledge
systems, including knowledge of the medicinal and other properties of animal and plant life
possessed by local communities and people.

30

34 Domestication of international instruments

The State must ensure that all international conventions, treaties and agreements to which
Zimbabwe is a party are incorporated into domestic law.

31

CHAPTER 3

CITIZENSHIP

35 Zimbabwean citizenship

(1) Persons are Zimbabwean citizens by birth, descent or registration.

(2) All Zimbabwean citizens are equally entitled to the rights, privileges and benefits of
citizenship and are equally subject to the duties and obligations of citizenship.

(3) All Zimbabwean citizens are entitled to the following rights and benefits, in addition to
any others granted to them by law—

(a) to the protection of the State wherever they may be;

(b) to passports and other travel documents; and

(c) to birth certificates and other identity documents issued by the State.

(4) Zimbabwean citizens have the following duties, in addition to any others imposed upon
them by law—

(a) to be loyal to Zimbabwe;

(b) to observe this Constitution and to respect its ideals and institutions;

(c) to respect the national flag and the national anthem; and

(d) to the best of their ability, to defend Zimbabwe and its sovereignty.

36 Citizenship by birth

(1) Persons are Zimbabwean citizens by birth if they were born in Zimbabwe and, when
they were born—

(a) either their mother or their father was a Zimbabwean citizen; or

(b) any of their grandparents was a Zimbabwean citizen by birth or descent.

(2) Persons born outside Zimbabwe are Zimbabwean citizens by birth if, when they were
born, either of their parents was a Zimbabwean citizen and—

(a) ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe; or

(b) working outside Zimbabwe for the State or an international organisation.

(3) A child found in Zimbabwe who is, or appears to be, less than fifteen years of age, and
whose nationality and parents are not known, is presumed to be a Zimbabwean citizen by birth.

37 Citizenship by descent

(1) Persons born outside Zimbabwe are Zimbabwean citizens by descent if, when they were
born—

(a) either of their parents or any of their grandparents was a Zimbabwean citizen by birth
or descent; or

(b) either of their parents was a Zimbabwean citizen by registration;

and the birth is registered in Zimbabwe in accordance with the law relating to the registration of
births.

32

(2) Subsection (1) does not affect a person’s right to citizenship by birth under section 36.

38 Citizenship by registration

(1) Any person who has been married to a Zimbabwean citizen for at least five years,
whether before or after the effective date, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act
of Parliament, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a Zimbabwean citizen.

(2) Any person who has been continuously and lawfully resident in Zimbabwe for at least
ten years, whether before or after the effective date, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed
by an Act of Parliament, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a Zimbabwean citizen.

(3) A child who is not a Zimbabwean citizen, but is adopted by a Zimbabwean citizen,
whether before or after the effective date, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a
Zimbabwean citizen.

39 Revocation of citizenship

(1) Zimbabwean citizenship by registration may be revoked if—

(a) the person concerned acquired the citizenship by fraud, false representation or
concealment of a material fact; or

(b) during a war in which Zimbabwe was engaged, the person concerned unlawfully
traded or communicated with an enemy or was engaged in or associated with any
business that was knowingly carried on so as to assist an enemy in that war.

(2) Zimbabwean citizenship by birth acquired under section 36 may be revoked if––

(a) the citizenship was acquired by fraud, false representation or concealment of a material
fact by any person; or

(b) the person’s nationality or parentage becomes known, and reveals that the person was
a citizen of another country.

(3) Zimbabwean citizenship must not be revoked under this section if the person would be
rendered stateless.

40 Retention of citizenship despite marriage or dissolution of marriage

Zimbabwean citizenship is not lost through marriage or the dissolution of marriage.

41 Citizenship and Immigration Board

An Act of Parliament must provide for the establishment of a Citizenship and Immigration
Board consisting of a chairperson and at least two other members, appointed by the President, to
be responsible for—

(a) granting and revoking citizenship by registration;

(b) permitting persons, other than citizens, to reside and work in Zimbabwe, and fixing the
terms and conditions under which they may so reside and work; and

(c) exercising any other functions that may be conferred or imposed on the Board by or
under an Act of Parliament.

42 Powers of Parliament in regard to citizenship

An Act of Parliament may make provision, consistent with this Chapter, for—

33

(a) procedures by which Zimbabwean citizenship by registration may be acquired;

(b) the voluntary renunciation of Zimbabwean citizenship;

(c) procedures for the revocation of Zimbabwean citizenship by registration;

(d) the restoration of Zimbabwean citizenship;

(e) the prohibition of dual citizenship in respect of citizens by descent or registration; and

(f) generally giving effect to this Chapter.

43 Continuation and restoration of previous citizenship

(1) Every person who, immediately before the effective date, was a Zimbabwean citizen
continues to be a Zimbabwean citizen after that date.

(2) Every person who was born in Zimbabwe before the effective date is a Zimbabwean
citizen by birth if—

(a) one or both of his or her parents was a citizen of a country which became a member of
the Southern African Development Community established by the treaty signed at
Windhoek in the Republic of Namibia on the 17th August, 1992; and

(b) he or she was ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe on the effective date.

34

CHAPTER 4

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

PART 1

APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF CHAPTER 4

44 Duty to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms

The State and every person, including juristic persons, and every institution and agency of
the government at every level must respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights and freedoms
set out in this Chapter.

45 Application of Chapter 4

(1) This Chapter binds the State and all executive, legislative and judicial institutions and
agencies of government at every level.

(2) This Chapter binds natural and juristic persons to the extent that it is applicable to them,
taking into account the nature of the right or freedom concerned and any duty imposed by it.

(3) Juristic persons as well as natural persons are entitled to the rights and freedoms set out
in this Chapter to the extent that those rights and freedoms can appropriately be extended to
them.

46 Interpretation of Chapter 4

(1) When interpreting this Chapter, a court, tribunal, forum or body—

(a) must give full effect to the rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter;

(b) must promote the values and principles that underlie a democratic society based on
openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom, and in particular, the values
and principles set out in section 3;

(c) must take into account international law and all treaties and conventions to which
Zimbabwe is a party;

(d) must pay due regard to all the provisions of this Constitution, in particular the
principles and objectives set out in Chapter 2; and

(e) may consider relevant foreign law;

in addition to considering all other relevant factors that are to be taken into account in the
interpretation of a Constitution.

(2) When interpreting an enactment, and when developing the common law and customary
law, every court, tribunal, forum or body must promote and be guided by the spirit and
objectives of this Chapter.

47 Chapter 4 does not preclude existence of other rights

This Chapter does not preclude the existence of other rights and freedoms that may be
recognised or conferred by law, to the extent that they are consistent with this Chapter.

35

PART 2

FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

(1) Every person has the right to life.

(2) A law may permit the death penalty to be imposed only on a person convicted of murder
committed in aggravating circumstances, and

(a) the penalty may be carried out only in accordance with a final judgment of a
competent court;

(b) the penalty must not be imposed on a person—

(i) who was less than twenty-one years old when the offence was committed; or

(ii) who is more than seventy years old;

(c) the penalty must not be imposed or carried out on a woman;

(d) the law must permit the court a discretion whether or not to impose the penalty; and

(e) the person sentenced must have a right to seek pardon or commutation of the penalty
from the President.

(3) An Act of Parliament must protect the lives of unborn children, and that Act must
provide that pregnancy may be terminated only in accordance with that law.

49 Right to personal liberty

(1) Every person has the right to personal liberty, which includes the right—

(a) not to be detained without trial; and

(b) not to be deprived of their liberty arbitrarily or without just cause.

(2) No person may be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual
obligation.

50 Rights of arrested and detained persons

(1) Any person who is arrested—

(a) must be informed at the time of arrest of the reason for the arrest;

(b) must be permitted, without delay—

(i) at the expense of the State, to contact their spouse or partner, or a relative or
legal practitioner, or anyone else of their choice; and

(ii) at their own expense, to consult in private with a legal practitioner and a
medical practitioner of their choice;

and must be informed of this right promptly;

(c) must be treated humanely and with respect for their inherent dignity;

(d) must be released unconditionally or on reasonable conditions, pending a charge or
trial, unless there are compelling reasons justifying their continued detention; and

(e) must be permitted to challenge the lawfulness of the arrest in person before a court and
must be released promptly if the arrest is unlawful.

36

(2) Any person who is arrested or detained—

(a) for the purpose of bringing him or her before a court; or

(b) for an alleged offence;

and who is not released must be brought before a court as soon as possible and in any event not
later than forty-eight hours after the arrest took place or the detention began, as the case may be,
whether or not the period ends on a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday.

(3) Any person who is not brought to court within the forty-eight hour period referred to in
subsection (2) must be released immediately unless their detention has earlier been extended by
a competent court.

(4) Any person who is arrested or detained for an alleged offence has the right—

(a) to remain silent;

(b) to be informed promptly—

(i) of their right to remain silent; and

(ii) of the consequences of remaining silent and of not remaining silent;

(c) not to be compelled to make any confession or admission; and

(d) at the first court appearance after being arrested, to be charged or to be informed of the
reason why their detention should continue, or to be released.

(5) Any person who is detained, including a sentenced prisoner, has the right—

(a) to be informed promptly of the reason for their being detained;

(b) at their own expense, to consult in private with a legal practitioner of their choice, and
to be informed of this right promptly;

(c) to communicate with, and be visited by—

(i) a spouse or partner;

(ii) a relative;

(iii) their chosen religious counsellor;

(iv) their chosen legal practitioner;

(v) their chosen medical practitioner; and

(vi) subject to reasonable restrictions imposed for the proper administration of
prisons or places of detention, anyone else of their choice;

(d) to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including the
opportunity for physical exercise and the provision, at State expense, of adequate
accommodation, ablution facilities, personal hygiene, nutrition, appropriate reading
material and medical treatment; and

(e) to challenge the lawfulness of their detention in person before a court and, if the
detention is unlawful, to be released promptly.

(6) Any person who is detained pending trial for an alleged offence and is not tried within a
reasonable time must be released from detention, either unconditionally or on reasonable
conditions to ensure that after being released they—

37

(b) do not interfere with the evidence to be given at the trial; and

(c) do not commit any other offence before the trial begins.

(7) If there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person is being detained illegally or if it
is not possible to ascertain the whereabouts of a detained person, any person may approach the
High Court for an order—

(a) of habeas corpus, that is to say an order requiring the detained person to be released,
or to be brought before the court for the lawfulness of the detention to be justified, or
requiring the whereabouts of the detained person to be disclosed; or

(b) declaring the detention to be illegal and ordering the detained person’s prompt release;

and the High Court may make whatever order is appropriate in the circumstances.

(8) An arrest or detention which contravenes this section, or in which the conditions set out
in this section are not met, is illegal.

(9) Any person who has been illegally arrested or detained is entitled to compensation from
the person responsible for the arrest or detention, but a law may protect the following persons
from liability under this section—

(a) a judicial officer acting in a judicial capacity reasonably and in good faith;

(b) any other public officer acting reasonably and in good faith and without culpable
ignorance or negligence.

51 Right to human dignity

Every person has inherent dignity in their private and public life, and the right to have that
dignity respected and protected.

52 Right to personal security

Every person has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right—

(a) to freedom from all forms of violence from public or private sources;

(b) subject to any other provision of this Constitution, to make decisions concerning
reproduction;

(c) not to be subjected to medical or scientific experiments, or to the extraction or use of
their bodily tissue, without their informed consent.

53 Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment

No person may be subjected to physical or psychological torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.

54 Freedom from slavery or servitude

No person may be subjected to slavery or servitude.

55 Freedom from forced or compulsory labour

No person may be made to perform forced or compulsory labour.

38

56 Equality and non-discrimination

(1) All persons are equal before the law and have the right to equal protection and benefit of
the law.

(2) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal
opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

(3) Every person has the right not to be treated in an unfairly discriminatory manner on
such grounds as their nationality, race, colour, tribe, place of birth, ethnic or social origin,
language, class, religious belief, political affiliation, opinion, custom, culture, sex, gender,
marital status, age, pregnancy, disability or economic or social status, or whether they were born
in or out of wedlock.

(4) A person is treated in a discriminatory manner for the purpose of subsection (3) if—

(a) they are subjected directly or indirectly to a condition, restriction or disability to which
other people are not subjected; or

(b) other people are accorded directly or indirectly a privilege or advantage which they are
not accorded.

(5) Discrimination on any of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is
established that the discrimination is fair, reasonable and justifiable in a democratic society
based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom.

(6) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures to promote the
achievement of equality and to protect or advance people or classes of people who have been
disadvantaged by unfair discrimination, and—

(a) such measures must be taken to redress circumstances of genuine need;

(b) no such measure is to be regarded as unfair for the purposes of subsection (3).

Every person has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have—

(a) their home, premises or property entered without their permission;

(b) their person, home, premises or property searched;

(c) their possessions seized;

(d) the privacy of their communications infringed; or

(e) their health condition disclosed.

58 Freedom of assembly and association

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of assembly and association, and the right not to
assemble or associate with others.

(2) No person may be compelled to belong to an association or to attend a meeting or
gathering.

59 Freedom to demonstrate and petition

Every person has the right to demonstrate and to present petitions, but these rights must be
exercised peacefully.

39

60 Freedom of conscience

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of conscience, which includes—

(a) freedom of thought, opinion, religion or belief; and

(b) freedom to practise and propagate and give expression to their thought, opinion,
religion or belief, whether in public or in private and whether alone or together with
others.

(2) No person may be compelled to take an oath that is contrary to their religion or belief or
to take an oath in a manner that is contrary to their religion or belief.

(3) Parents and guardians of minor children have the right to determine, in accordance with
their beliefs, the moral and religious upbringing of their children, provided they do not prejudice
the rights to which their children are entitled under this Constitution, including their rights to
education, health, safety and welfare.

(4) Any religious community may establish institutions where religious instruction may be
given, even if the institution receives a subsidy or other financial assistance from the State.

61 Freedom of expression and freedom of the media

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of expression, which includes—

(a) freedom to seek, receive and communicate ideas and other information;

(b) freedom of artistic expression and scientific research and creativity; and

(c) academic freedom.

(2) Every person is entitled to freedom of the media, which freedom includes protection of
the confidentiality of journalists’ sources of information.

(3) Broadcasting and other electronic media of communication have freedom of
establishment, subject only to State licensing procedures that—

(a) are necessary to regulate the airwaves and other forms of signal distribution; and

(b) are independent of control by government or by political or commercial interests.

(4) All State-owned media of communication must—

(a) be free to determine independently the editorial content of their broadcasts or other
communications;

(b) be impartial; and

(c) afford fair opportunity for the presentation of divergent views and dissenting opinions.

(5) Freedom of expression and freedom of the media do not include—

(a) incitement to violence;

(b) advocacy of hatred or hate speech;

(c) malicious injury to a person’s reputation or dignity; or

(d) malicious or unwarranted breach of a person’s right to privacy.

62 Access to information

(1) Every Zimbabwean citizen or permanent resident, including the Zimbabwean media,
has the right of access to any information held by the State or by any institution or agency of

40

government at every level, in so far as the information is required in the interests of public
accountability.

(2) Every person, including the Zimbabwean media, has the right of access to any
information held by any person, including the State, in so far as the information is required for
the exercise or protection of a right.

(3) Every person has a right to the correction of information, or the deletion of untrue,
erroneous or misleading information, which is held by the State or any institution or agency of
the government at any level, and which relates to that person.

(4) Legislation must be enacted to give effect to this right, but may restrict access to
information in the interests of defence, public security or professional confidentiality, to the
extent that the restriction is fair, reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society
based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom.

63 Language and culture

Every person has the right—

(a) to use the language of their choice; and

(b) to participate in the cultural life of their choice;

but no person exercising these rights may do so in a way that is inconsistent with this Chapter.

64 Freedom of profession, trade or occupation

Every person has the right to choose and carry on any profession, trade or occupation, but
the practice of a profession, trade or occupation may be regulated by law.

(1) Every person has the right to fair and safe labour practices and standards and to be paid
a fair and reasonable wage.

(2) Except for members of the security services, every person has the right to form and join
trade unions and employee or employers’ organisations of their choice, and to participate in the
lawful activities of those unions and organisations.

(3) Except for members of the security services, every employee has the right to participate
in collective job action, including the right to strike, sit in, withdraw their labour and to take
other similar concerted action, but a law may restrict the exercise of this right in order to
maintain essential services.

(4) Every employee is entitled to just, equitable and satisfactory conditions of work.

(5) Except for members of the security services, every employee, employer, trade union,
and employee or employer’s organisation has the right to—

(a) engage in collective bargaining;

(c) form and join federations of such unions and organisations.

(6) Women and men have a right to equal remuneration for similar work.

(7) Women employees have a right to fully paid maternity leave for a period of at least
three months.

41

66 Freedom of movement and residence

(1) Every Zimbabwean citizen has—

(a) the right to enter Zimbabwe;

(b) immunity from expulsion from Zimbabwe; and

(c) the right to a passport or other travel document.

(2) Every Zimbabwean citizen and everyone else who is legally in Zimbabwe has the right
to—

(a) move freely within Zimbabwe;

(b) reside in any part of Zimbabwe; and

(c) leave Zimbabwe.

(1) Every Zimbabwean citizen has the right—

(a) to free, fair and regular elections for any elective public office established in terms of
this Constitution or any other law; and

(b) to make political choices freely.

(2) Subject to this Constitution, every Zimbabwean citizen has the right—

(a) to form, to join and to participate in the activities of a political party or organisation of
their choice;

(b) to campaign freely and peacefully for a political party or cause;

(c) to participate in peaceful political activity; and

(d) to participate, individually or collectively, in gatherings or groups or in any other
manner, in peaceful activities to influence, challenge or support the policies of the
Government or any political or whatever cause.

(3) Subject to this Constitution, every Zimbabwean citizen who is of or over eighteen years
of age has the right—

(a) to vote in all elections and referendums to which this Constitution or any other law
applies, and to do so in secret; and

(b) to stand for election for public office and, if elected, to hold such office.

(4) For the purpose of promoting multi-party democracy, an Act of Parliament must
provide for the funding of political parties.

68 Right to administrative justice

(1) Every person has a right to administrative conduct that is lawful, prompt, efficient,
reasonable, proportionate, impartial and both substantively and procedurally fair.

(2) Any person whose right, freedom, interest or legitimate expectation has been adversely
affected by administrative conduct has the right to be given promptly and in writing the reasons
for the conduct.

(3) An Act of Parliament must give effect to these rights, and must—

42

(a) provide for the review of administrative conduct by a court or, where appropriate, by
an independent and impartial tribunal;

(b) impose a duty on the State to give effect to the rights in subsections (1) and (2); and

(c) promote an efficient administration.

69 Right to a fair hearing

(1) Every person accused of an offence has the right to a fair and public trial within a
reasonable time before an independent and impartial court.

(2) In the determination of civil rights and obligations, every person has a right to a fair,
speedy and public hearing within a reasonable time before an independent and impartial court,
tribunal or other forum established by law.

(3) Every person has the right of access to the courts, or to some other tribunal or forum
established by law for the resolution of any dispute.

(4) Every person has a right, at their own expense, to choose and be represented by a legal
practitioner before any court, tribunal or forum.

70 Rights of accused persons

(1) Any person accused of an offence has the following rights—

(a) to be presumed innocent until proved guilty;

(b) to be informed promptly of the charge, in sufficient detail to enable them to answer it;

(c) to be given adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence;

(d) to choose a legal practitioner and, at their own expense, to be represented by that legal
practitioner;

(e) to be represented by a legal practitioner assigned by the State and at State expense, if
substantial injustice would otherwise result;

(f) to be informed promptly of the rights conferred by paragraphs (d) and (e);

(g) to be present when being tried;

(h) to adduce and challenge evidence;

(i) to remain silent and not to testify or be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence;

(j) to have the proceedings of the trial interpreted into a language that they understand;

(k) not to be convicted of an act or omission that was not an offence when it took place;

(l) not to be convicted of an act or omission that is no longer an offence;

(m) not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which they have
previously been pardoned or either acquitted or convicted on the merits;

(n) to be sentenced to the lesser of the prescribed punishments if the prescribed
punishment for the offence has been changed between the time the offence was
committed and the time of sentencing.

(2) Where this section requires information to be given to a person—

(a) the information must be given in a language the person understands; and

43

(b) if the person cannot read or write, any document embodying the information must be
explained in such a way that the person understands it.

(3) In any criminal trial, evidence that has been obtained in a manner that violates any
provision of this Chapter must be excluded if the admission of the evidence would render the
trial unfair or would otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice or the public
interest.

(4) Any person who has been tried for an offence has the right, on payment of a reasonable
fee prescribed by law, to be given a copy of the record of the proceedings within a reasonable
time after judgment is delivered in the trial.

(5) Any person who has been tried and convicted of an offence has the right, subject to
reasonable restrictions that may be prescribed by law, to—

(a) have the case reviewed by a higher court; or

(b) appeal to a higher court against the conviction and sentence.

(1) In this section—

―pension benefit‖ means a pension, annuity, gratuity or similar allowance which is
payable—

to any person from the Consolidated Revenue Fund;

in respect of a person’s service with an employer;

in respect of a person’s ill-health or injury; or

in respect of a person’s retirement through age or ill-health or any other reason;

and includes a commutation of such a pension, annuity, gratuity or allowance and a
refund of contributions paid towards such a pension, annuity, gratuity or allowance;

―property‖ means property of any description and any right or interest in property.

(2) Subject to section 72, every person has the right, in any part of Zimbabwe, to acquire,
hold, occupy, use, transfer, hypothecate, lease or dispose of all forms of property, either
individually or in association with others.

(3) Subject to this section and to section 72, no person may be compulsorily deprived of
their property except where the following conditions are satisfied—

(a) the deprivation is in terms of a law of general application;

(b) the deprivation is necessary for any of the following reasons—

(i) in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public
health or town and country planning; or

(ii) in order to develop or use that or any other property for a purpose beneficial to
the community;

(c) the law requires the acquiring authority—

(i) to give reasonable notice of the intention to acquire the property to everyone
whose interest or right in the property would be affected by the acquisition;

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(ii) to pay fair and adequate compensation for the acquisition before acquiring the
property or within a reasonable time after the acquisition; and

(iii) if the acquisition is contested, to apply to a competent court before acquiring
the property, or not later than thirty days after the acquisition, for an order
confirming the acquisition;

(d) the law entitles any person whose property has been acquired to apply to a competent
court for the prompt return of the property if the court does not confirm the
acquisition; and

(e) the law entitles any claimant for compensation to apply to a competent court for the
determination of—

(i) the existence, nature and value of their interest in the property concerned;

(ii) the legality of the deprivation; and

(iii) the amount of compensation to which they are entitled;

and to apply to the court for an order directing the prompt payment of any
compensation.

(4) Where a person has a vested or contingent right to the payment of a pension benefit, a
law which provides for the extinction or diminution of that right is regarded, for the purposes of
subsection (3), as a law providing for the compulsory acquisition of property.

72 Rights to agricultural land

(1) In this section—

―agricultural land‖ means land used or suitable for agriculture, that is to say for
horticulture, viticulture, forestry or aquaculture or for any purpose of husbandry,
including—

the keeping or breeding of livestock, game, poultry, animals or bees; or

the grazing of livestock or game;

but does not include Communal Land or land within the boundaries of an urban local
authority or within a township established under a law relating to town and country
planning or as defined in a law relating to land survey;

―land‖ includes anything permanently attached to or growing on land;

―piece of agricultural land‖ means a piece of agricultural land registered as a separate piece
of land in a Deeds Registry.

(2) Where agricultural land, or any right or interest in such land, is required for a public
purpose, including—

(a) settlement for agricultural or other purposes;

(b) land reorganisation, forestry, environmental conservation or the utilisation of wild life
or other natural resources; or

(c) the relocation of persons dispossessed as a result of the utilisation of land for a purpose
referred to in paragraph (a) or (b);

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the land, right or interest may be acquired by the State by notice published in the Gazette
identifying the land, right or interest, whereupon the land, right or interest vests in the State with
full title with effect from the date of publication of the notice.

(3) Where agricultural land, or any right or interest in such land, is compulsorily acquired
for a purpose referred to in subsection (2)—

(a) no compensation is payable in respect of its acquisition, except for improvements
effected on it before its acquisition;

(b) no person may apply to court for the determination of any question relating to
compensation, except for compensation for improvements effected on the land before
its acquisition, and no court may entertain any such application; and

(c) the acquisition may not be challenged on the ground that it was discriminatory in
contravention of section 56.

(4) All agricultural land which—

(a) was itemised in Schedule 7 to the former Constitution; or

(b) before the effective date, was identified in terms of section 16B(2)(a)(ii) or (iii) of the
former Constitution;

continues to be vested in the State, and no compensation is payable in respect of its acquisition
except for improvements effected on it before its acquisition.

(5) As soon as practicable after agricultural land is acquired in accordance with subsection
(2), the officer responsible for the registration of title over land must, without further notice,
effect the necessary endorsements upon any title deed and entries in any register for the purpose
of formally cancelling the title deed and registering the State’s title over the land.

(6) An Act of Parliament may make it an offence for any person, without lawful authority,
to possess or occupy agricultural land referred to in this section or other State land.

(7) In regard to the compulsory acquisition of agricultural land for the resettlement of
people in accordance with a programme of land reform, the following factors must be regarded
as of ultimate and overriding importance—

(a) under colonial domination the people of Zimbabwe were unjustifiably dispossessed of
their land and other resources without compensation;

(b) the people consequently took up arms in order to regain their land and political
sovereignty, and this ultimately resulted in the Independence of Zimbabwe in 1980;

(c) the people of Zimbabwe must be enabled to re-assert their rights and regain ownership
of their land;

(i) the former colonial power has an obligation to pay compensation for agricultural land
compulsorily acquired for resettlement, through an adequate fund established for the
purpose; and

(ii) if the former colonial power fails to pay compensation through such a fund, the
Government of Zimbabwe has no obligation to pay compensation for agricultural land
compulsorily acquired for resettlement.

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(8) This section applies without prejudice to the obligation of the former colonial power to
pay compensation for land referred to in this section that has been acquired for resettlement
purposes.

73 Environmental rights

(1) Every person has the right—

(a) to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and

(b) to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations,
through reasonable legislative and other measures that—

(i) prevent pollution and ecological degradation;

(ii) promote conservation; and

(iii) secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while
promoting economic and social development.

(2) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of the rights set out in this
section.

74 Freedom from arbitrary eviction

No person may be evicted from their home, or have their home demolished, without an
order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances.

75 Right to education

(1) Every citizen and permanent resident of Zimbabwe has a right to—

(a) a basic State-funded education, including adult basic education; and

(b) further education, which the State, through reasonable legislative and other measures,
must make progressively available and accessible.

(2) Every person has the right to establish and maintain, at their own expense, independent
educational institutions of reasonable standards, provided they do not discriminate on any
ground prohibited by this Constitution.

(3) A law may provide for the registration of educational institutions referred to in
subsection (2) and for the closing of any such institutions that do not meet reasonable standards
prescribed for registration.

(4) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right set out in subsection
(1).

76 Right to health care

(1) Every citizen and permanent resident of Zimbabwe has the right to have access to basic
health-care services, including reproductive health-care services.

(2) Every person living with a chronic illness has the right to have access to basic health-
care services for the illness.

(3) No person may be refused emergency medical treatment in any health-care institution.

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(4) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of the rights set out in this
section.

77 Right to food and water

Every person has the right to—

(a) safe, clean and potable water; and

(b) sufficient food;

and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.

(1) Every person who has attained the age of eighteen years has the right to found a family.

(2) No person may be compelled to enter into marriage against their will.

(3) Persons of the same sex are prohibited from marrying each other.

PART 3

ELABORATION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS

79 Application of Part 3

(1) This Part elaborates certain rights and freedoms to ensure greater certainty as to the
application of those rights and freedoms to particular classes of people.

(2) This Part must not be construed as limiting any right or freedom set out in Part 2.

(1) Every woman has full and equal dignity of the person with men and this includes equal
opportunities in political, economic and social activities.

(2) Women have the same rights as men regarding the custody and guardianship of
children, but an Act of Parliament may regulate how those rights are to be exercised.

(3) All laws, customs, traditions and cultural practices that infringe the rights of women
conferred by this Constitution are void to the extent of the infringement.

81 Rights of children

(1) Every child, that is to say every boy and girl under the age of eighteen years, has the
right—

(a) to equal treatment before the law, including the right to be heard;

(b) to be given a name and family name;

(c) in the case of a child who is—

(i) born in Zimbabwe; or

(ii) born outside Zimbabwe and is a Zimbabwean citizen by descent;

to the prompt provision of a birth certificate;

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(d) to family or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the
family environment;

(e) to be protected from economic and sexual exploitation, from child labour, and from
maltreatment, neglect or any form of abuse;

(f) to education, health care services, nutrition and shelter;

(g) not to be recruited into a militia force or take part in armed conflict or hostilities;

(h) not to be compelled to take part in any political activity; and

(i) not to be detained except as a measure of last resort and, if detained—

(i) to be detained for the shortest appropriate period;

(ii) to be kept separately from detained persons over the age of eighteen years; and

(iii) to be treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of the
child’s age.

(2) A child’s best interests are paramount in every matter concerning the child.

(3) Children are entitled to adequate protection by the courts, in particular by the High
Court as their upper guardian.

82 Rights of the elderly

People over the age of seventy years have the right—

(a) to receive reasonable care and assistance from their families and the State;

(b) to receive health care and medical assistance from the State; and

(c) to receive financial support by way of social security and welfare;

and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the
resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.

83 Rights of persons with disabilities

The State must take appropriate measures, within the limits of the resources available to it,
to ensure that persons with disabilities realise their full mental and physical potential, including
measures—

(a) to enable them to become self reliant;

(b) to enable them to live with their families and participate in social, creative or
recreational activities;

(c) to protect them from all forms of exploitation and abuse;

(d) to give them access to medical, psychological and functional treatment;

(e) to provide special facilities for their education; and

(f) to State-funded education and training where they need it.

84 Rights of veterans of the liberation struggle

(1) Veterans of the liberation struggle, that is to say—

(a) those who fought in the War of Liberation;

(b) those who assisted the fighters in the War of Liberation; and

49

(c) those who were imprisoned, detained or restricted for political reasons during the
liberation struggle;

are entitled to due recognition for their contribution to the liberation of Zimbabwe, and to
suitable welfare such as pensions and access to basic health care.

(2) An Act of Parliament must confer on veterans of the liberation struggle the entitlements
due to them under subsection (1).

PART 4

ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

85 Enforcement of fundamental human rights and freedoms

(1) Any of the following persons, namely—

(a) any person acting in their own interests;

(b) any person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act for themselves;

(c) any person acting as a member, or in the interests, of a group or class of persons;

(d) any person acting in the public interest;

(e) any association acting in the interests of its members;

is entitled to approach a court, alleging that a fundamental right or freedom enshrined in this
Chapter has been, is being or is likely to be infringed, and the court may grant appropriate relief,
including a declaration of rights and an award of compensation.

(2) The fact that a person has contravened a law does not debar them from approaching a
court for relief under subsection (1).

(3) The rules of every court must provide for the procedure to be followed in cases where
relief is sought under subsection (1), and those rules must ensure that—

(a) the right to approach the court under subsection (1) is fully facilitated;

(b) formalities relating to the proceedings, including their commencement, are kept to a
minimum;

(c) the court, while observing the rules of natural justice, is not unreasonably restricted by
procedural technicalities; and

(d) a person with particular expertise may, with the leave of the court, appear as a friend
of the court.

(4) The absence of rules referred to in subsection (3) does not limit the right to commence
proceedings under subsection (1) and to have the case heard and determined by a court.

PART 5

LIMITATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

86 Limitation of rights and freedoms

(1) The fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter must be exercised
reasonably and with due regard for the rights and freedoms of other persons.

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(2) The fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be limited only in
terms of a law of general application and to the extent that the limitation is fair, reasonable,
necessary and justifiable in a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity,
equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors, including—

(a) the nature of the right or freedom concerned;

(b) the purpose of the limitation, in particular whether it is necessary in the interests of
defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, regional or town
planning or the general public interest;

(c) the nature and extent of the limitation;

(d) the need to ensure that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms by any person does not
prejudice the rights and freedoms of others;

(e) the relationship between the limitation and its purpose, in particular whether it imposes
greater restrictions on the right or freedom concerned than are necessary to achieve its
purpose; and

(f) whether there are any less restrictive means of achieving the purpose of the limitation.

(3) No law may limit the following rights enshrined in this Chapter, and no person may
violate them—

(a) the right to life, except to the extent specified in section 48;

(b) the right to human dignity;

(c) the right not to be tortured or subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment;

(d) the right not to be placed in slavery or servitude;

(e) the right to a fair trial;

(f) the right to obtain an order of habeas corpus as provided in section 50(7)(a).

87 Limitations during public emergency

(1) In addition to the limitations permitted by section 86, the fundamental rights and
freedoms set out in this Chapter may be further limited by a written law providing for measures
to deal with situations arising during a period of public emergency, but only to the extent
permitted by this section and the Second Schedule.

(2) A written law referred to in subsection (1) and any legislative measures taken under that
law, must be published in the Gazette.

(3) Any limitation which a written law referred to in subsection (1) imposes on a
fundamental right or freedom set out in this Chapter must not be greater than is strictly required
by the emergency.

(4) No law that provides for a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislative or
other measure taken in consequence of such a declaration, may—

(a) indemnify, or permit or authorise an indemnity for, the State or any institution or
agency of the government at any level, or any other person, in respect of any unlawful
act; or

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(b) limit, or permit or authorise the violation of, any of the rights referred to in section
86(3).

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Friday, March 22, 2013 - 17:15